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Monday, August 18, 2014

The "Elder" Futhark

Alright... getting on with the theme of Rune Magick, now we look at the Gothic or "Elder" Futhark, the system of runes most commonly used in North America and some parts of Europe by runecasters. Sometimes this system is also called the Common Germanic Futhark, though there is a slight difference between the two in the ordering of a couple of the runes. 

Let it be said here, that the "Elder" Futhark Runes almost certainly had uses far beyond mere divination - however, aside from a few mysterious Rune-stones (far more survive for the Younger Futhark), little context survives of their usage... today in the United States, it's often the only Runic system most practitioners know of, and all sorts of people from part-time psychics and wiccans to hard-core Asatruars use the "Elder" runes for divination and occasionally bindrunes and inscription spells. Most of the divination methods are of modern invention, and it's impossible to know for sure how the early pre-Viking Norse peoples used the Elder Futhark in castings. Tacitus provides a few clues to the rune-casting practices of their southern kinfolk in Germania, and his account is contemporary to the period of the Elder Futhark's usage, but his description of the practice is typically vague, in classic dismissive xenophobic Roman style.

The meanings of these runes are difficult to glean. Unlike the Younger Futhark and the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, there is no original rune poem surviving for the Elder Futhark. Their meanings and even their pronunciations have had to be reconstructed based on later sources and what is known of the Gothic language. However, since many of the same runes are present in the Anglo-Saxon system, the Anglo-Saxon rune poem provides some clues as to their meanings. 

The Elder Futhark is considered the ancestor of both the Younger and Anglo-Saxon systems, though by divergent means. The Younger Futhark was derived through contraction and likely "reverse-engineering" by Viking skalds in the 6th and 7th centuries in Scandinavia, to return the Runes to their more primal and esoteric Odinic form of 18 Runes, as mentioned in the Hávamál, of which only the first 16 were revived successfully by the Viking skalds. The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc by contrast was developed far earlier in Germany and Frisia through a complex and variegated process of expansion by various German tribes, a process which typically inched forward following military conquests, and continued after the Futhorc was exported to England by the Angles, Jutes and Saxons in the 5th century CE.

What follows is a condensed breakdown of the literal meanings of each rune followed by the generally accepted esoteric meanings used in Runic divination and magickal work. The reverse (upside-down) and murk-stave (left-horizontal) positions are symbolic of potential negative tendencies of that rune. Typically runes rotated right-horizontal can be viewed positively (as in an upright rune), with caution - except when a rune is in some way symmetrical, and thus identical in upright and reversed position (in which case all horizontal forms may be considered "murk"). Alternately, you can also adapt the more symbolic and nuanced divination method used in Armanen divination.

The Elder Futhark, rightly or wrongly, has been divided in modern times into three "Aetts" or sets of Eight, for a total of 24 runes. The infamous 25th "blank rune" sometimes added to the Elder Futhark is a new-age commercial invention with no basis in any rune tradition.

Freyr's Aett (or Yggdrasil's Root of Arising)

Fehu: (F: Domestic cattle, wealth.) Possessions won or earned, earned income, luck. Abundance, financial strength in the present or near future. Sign of hope and plenty, success and happiness. Financial success. Energy, foresight, fertility, creation/transformation.

Fehu Reversed or Murkstave: Loss of personal property, esteem, or something that you put in effort to keep. It indicates some sort of failure. Greed, burnout, atrophy, discord. Cowardice, stupidity, poverty, slavery, bondage.

Uruz: (U: Aurochs, a wild ox.) Physical strength and speed, untamed potential. The primitive and untainted original state of things. A time of great energy and health. Strength and longevity in old age. Freedom, raw energy, perseverance, tenacity, understanding, ancient wisdom. Sexual desire, potency. The shaping of power and pattern, formulation of the self.

Uruz Reversed or Murkstave: Weakness, obsession, misdirected force, domination by others. Sickness, inconsistency, instability, ignorance. Impulsiveness, brutality, rashness, callousness, rage.

Thurisaz: (TH: Thorn, the god Thor, or a Giant.) Reactive force, directed force of destruction and defense, conflict. Instinctual will, vital eroticism, regenerative catalyst. A tendency toward change. Purging, cleansing fire. Male sexuality, penetrative energy, fertilization. (Thor, the Thunder god, is both a god of fertility and protector of man against the Giants.)

Thurisaz Reversed or Murkstave: Danger, defenselessness, compulsion, betrayal, dullness. Evil, malice, hatred, torment, violence, spite, lies. A bad man or woman. Rape?

Ansuz: (A: The Asa, ancestral god, i.e. Odin.) A revealing message or insight, communication. Signals, inspiration, enthusiasm, speech, true vision, power of words and naming. Blessings, the taking of advice. Good health, harmony, truth, wisdom. 

Ansuz Reversed or Murkstave: Misunderstanding, delusion, manipulation by others, boredom. Vanity and grandiloquence. (Odin is a mighty, but cunning god. He always has his own agenda, and may send disaster upon those who prove unworthy of his gifts and guidance.)

Raidho: (R: The Ride, wagon, wheel or chariot.) Travel, both in physical terms and those of lifestyle direction. A journey, relocation, evolution, change of place or setting. Seeing a larger perspective, Right Action, Ritual, worldly wisdom. Seeing the right move to make and deciding upon it. Personal rhythm, world rhythm, dance of life. 

Raidho Reversed or Murkstave: Crisis, rigidity, stasis, injustice, irrationality. Disruption, dislocation, demotion, delusion, possibly a death.

Kenaz: (K: Beacon or torch.) Vision, revelation, knowledge, creativity, inspiration,  intuitive knowledge, cunning, technical ability. Vital fire of life, harnessed power, fire of transformation and regeneration. Power to create your own reality, the power of light. Open to new strength, energy, and power now. Passion, sexual love. 

Kenaz Reversed or Murkstave: Disease, breakup, instability, lack of creativity. Nakedness, exposure, loss of illusion and false hope.

Gebo: (G: Gift.) Gifts, both in the sense of sacrifice and of generosity, indicating balance. All matters in relation to exchanges, including contracts, personal relationships and partnerships. 

Gebo Murkstave (Gebo cannot be reversed, but may lie in perpendicular opposition): Greed, loneliness, dependence, over-sacrifice, unrequited giving. Obligation, toll, privation, bribery.

Wunjo: (W or V: Joy.) Joy, comfort, pleasure. Fellowship, harmony, prosperity. Ecstasy, glory, spiritual reward, but also the possibility of going "over the top". If restrained, the meaning is general success and recognition of worth. 

Wunjo Reversed or Murkstave: Stultification, boredom, sorrow, strife, alienation. Delirium, intoxication, possession by higher forces, impractical enthusiasm. Raging frenzy, berserker.

Heimdall's Aett (or Yggdrasil's Root of Being)

Hagalaz: (H: Hail.) Wrath of nature, destructive, uncontrolled forces, especially the weather, or within the unconscious - but also the ability to withstand them and regrow. Tempering, testing, trial. Controlled crisis, leading to completion, inner harmony. 

Hagalaz Murkstave (Hagalaz cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Natural disaster, catastrophe. Stagnation, loss of power. Pain, loss, suffering, hardship, sickness, crisis.

Naudhiz: (N: Need.) Delays, restriction. Resistance leading to strength, innovation, need-fire (self-reliance). Distress, confusion, conflict, and the power of will to overcome them. Acceptance of shortcomings, and determination to find a better solution to them. A time to exercise patience. Recognition of one's fate. Major self-initiated change. Face your fears. 

Naudhiz Murkstave (Naudhiz cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Constraint of freedom, distress, toil, drudgery, laxity. Necessity, extremity, want, deprivation, starvation, need, poverty, emotional hunger.

Isa: (I: Ice.) A challenge or frustration. Psychological blocks to thought or activity, including grievances. Standstill, truce with the ego, or a time to turn inward and wait for what is to come, or to seek clarity. This rune reinforces runes around it. 

Isa Murkstave (Isa cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Ego-mania, dullness, blindness, dissipation. Treachery, illusion, deceit, betrayal, guile, stealth, ambush, plots.

Jera: (J or Y: A year, a good harvest.) The results of earlier efforts are realized. A time of peace and happiness, fruitful season. It can break through stagnancy. Hopes and expectations of peace and prosperity. The promise of success earned. Life cycle, cyclical pattern of the universe. Everything changes, in its own time. 

Jera Murkstave (Jera cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Sudden setback, reversals. A major change, repetition, bad timing, poverty, conflict.

Eihwaz: (EI: Yew tree.) Strength, reliability, dependability, trustworthiness. Enlightenment, endurance. Life and death. Defense and offense, barbed protection against evil magick. Strongly rooted and beautiful, with a sense of purpose. Indicates that you have set your sights on a reasonable target and can achieve your goals precisely. An effective person who can be relied upon as an ally, and is to be dreaded by enemies. 

Eihwaz Murkstave (Eihwaz cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Confusion, destruction, dissatisfaction, weakness.

Perthro: (P: Lot cup, pear tree, vagina.) Uncertain meaning, a secret matter, a mystery, hidden things and occult abilities. Initiation, knowledge of one's destiny, knowledge of future matters, determining the future or your path. Pertaining to things feminine, feminine mysteries including female fertility, and vagina. Trysts without obligations. Good lot, fellowship and joy. Evolutionary change. 

Perthro Reversed or Murkstave: Addiction, stagnation, loneliness, malaise.

Algiz/Elhaz: (Z or -R: Elk, protection.) Protection, a shield. The protective urge to shelter oneself or others. Defense, warding off of evil, shield, guardian. Connection with the gods, awakening, higher life. It can be used to channel energies appropriately. Follow your instincts. Keep hold of success or maintain a position won or earned. 

Algiz Reversed: or Murkstave: Hidden danger, consumption by divine forces, loss of divine link. Taboo, warning, turning away, that which repels.

Sowilo: (S: The sun.) Success, goals achieved, honor. The life-force, health. A time when power will be available to you for positive changes in your life, victory, health, and success. Contact between the higher self and the unconscious. Wholeness, power, elemental force, sword of flame, cleansing fire. 

Sowilo Murkstave (Sowilo cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): False goals, bad counsel, false success, gullibility, loss of goals. Destruction, retribution, justice, casting down of vanity. Wrath of god.

Tyr's Aett (or Yggdrasil's Root of Passing Away towards new Arising)

Tiwaz: (T: Tyr, the sky god.) Honor, justice, leadership and authority. Analysis, rationality. Knowing where one's true strengths lie. Willingness to self-sacrifice. Victory and success in any competition or in legal matters. 

Tiwaz Reversed or Murkstave: One's energy and creative flow are blocked. Mental paralysis, over-analysis, over-sacrifice, injustice, imbalance. Strife, war, conflict, failure in competition. Dwindling passion, difficulties in communication, and possibly separation.

Berkana: (B: Berchta, the birch-goddess.) Birth, general fertility, both mental and physical and personal growth, liberation. Regenerative power and light of spring, renewal, promise of new beginnings, new growth. Arousal of desire. Pleasure that leads to parenthood (a closed-off counterpart of Perthro). A new birth or the likelihood of one. The prospering of an enterprise or venture. 

Berkana Reversed or Murkstave: Family problems and or domestic troubles. Anxiety about someone close to you. Carelessness, abandon, loss of control. Blurring of consciousness, deceit, sterility, stagnation.

Ehwaz: (E: Horse, two horses.) Transportation and partnership. Movement and change for the better. Gradual development and steady progress are indicated. Harmony, teamwork, trust, loyalty. An ideal marriage or long-term partnership. Confirmation beyond doubt of the meanings of any positive runes drawn alongside it. 

Ehwaz Reversed or Murkstave: This is not really a negative rune. A change is perhaps craved. Lack of adequate partner. Feeling restless or confined in a situation. A seed of potential for reckless haste, disharmony, mistrust, betrayal.

Mannaz: (M: Man, mankind.) The Self; the individual or mankind. Your attitude toward others and their attitudes towards you. Friends and enemies, social order. Intelligence, forethought, create, skill, ability. Divine structure, intelligence, awareness. Expect to receive some sort of short-term aid or cooperation now. 

Mannaz Reversed or Murkstave: Depression, mortality, blindness, self-delusion. Cunning, slyness, manipulation, craftiness, calculation. Expect no help now.

Laguz: (L: Water, a lake, or a leek.) Flow, water, sea, fertile source, healing power of renewal. Life energy and organic growth. Imagination and psychic matters. Dreams, mysteries, the unknown/hidden, the deep, the underworld. Success in travel or acquisition, but with the possibility of loss as the price of a life lesson. 

Laguz Reversed or Murkstave: An indication of confusion in your life. You may be making poor judgments. Lack of creativity, being in a rut. Fear, avoidance, withering away, wasted energy. Madness, obsession, sickness, despair.

Ingwaz: (NG: Ing, the god of fertility, usually understood to be Freyr.) Male fertility, gestation, internal growth. Common virtues, common sense, simple strengths, family love, caring, human warmth, the home. Rest stage, a time of relief, of no anxiety. A time when all loose strings are tied and you are free to move in a new direction. Be shining in your confidence.

Ingwaz Murkstave (Ingwaz cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition - check the grain of the wood!): Impotence, movement without change. Production, toil, labor, work, often seemingly with no result in sight. Mental burnout.

Dagaz: (D: Day or dawn.) Breakthrough, awakening, awareness. Daylight clarity as opposed to nighttime uncertainty. A time to embark upon an enterprise. The power of change directed by your will, transformation. Hope/happiness. Security and certainty. Growth and release. Balance point, where opposites meet; time when one phase ends, and another begins. 

Dagaz Murkstave (Dagaz cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): A completion, ending, limit, coming full circle - but without fulfilling results. Blindness, hopelessness, no new dawn for you.

Othala: (O: Ancestral property.) Inherited property or possessions, a house, a home. What is truly important to one. Group order, noble authority, group prosperity. Land of birth, spiritual heritage, experience and fundamental values. Aid in spiritual and physical journeys. Source of safety, increase and abundance. 

Othala Reversed or Murkstave: Lack of customary order, anarchy, slavery, poverty, homelessness. Bad karma, betrayal of hospitality, feuds, clannishness, provincialism. What a man is bound to.

Sunday, August 3, 2014

The Valknut - a symbol of sacrifice

The word valknut is a neologism: it is formed in modern times through combination of valr, ‘the dead’ or literally ‘the fallen’1 and knut, ‘knot’. However the symbol is very old and dates back to Viking times and probably even further. Valknut is a Viking symbol of three interconnected triangles. The triangles may be joined in two ways: either as Borromean:

or unicursal:

Note that other types of geometric "valknuts", such as closed three-link chain, the triquetra, or the "Penrose triangle" never occur in the original Viking ornaments. One should keep that in mind when using the valknut in Viking tattoos or runic tattoos, since only the above two designs are genuine Viking-age valknuts. 

There are a few modern variants of the valknut, which, however, may be considered valid even though they are not identical to the archaeological forms. Most spectacular of these is a version which combines both the Borromean and unicursal forms into a sort of "Grand Valknut":

In essence this is two valknuts in one, forming twelve corners instead of the regular Borromean valknut's nine. While this complex version is not historical, in the sense that there's no archaeological evidence for it having been used as a symbol (and quite honestly, just try staring at this thing for a couple of minutes and see if your head doesn't hurt). However if it were ever used in the past in any Indo-European warrior tradition, one would imagine that this type of valknut would only be for the most legendary and perfect warriors (in every aspect) who only appear once in a century or more - an Arhat's knot, so to speak. Esoterically, the twelve corners in the design would point to the God of war, Tyr - the ultimate warrior, whose rune, symbolizing sacrifice and victory at all costs, is the 12th rune in the Odinic or "Armanen" system of 18 holy runes.

However, if one is going purely for accuracy to the surviving history and artifacts, only the first two types of valknuts are historically authentic (and in our time of total reliance on technology, I doubt one can even still find a warrior worthy of the "Arhat's knot" anyway, as strength alone is far from enough).

Consider the Borromean triangles type, which occurs on the Stora Hammar rune stone.

Stora Hammar runestone

Here above the valknut we see a raven, Odin’s symbol. Below the valknut is probably a burial mound. A dead warrior is put there by someone with a spear, followed by giants and accompanied by another raven. The spear is probably Gungnir, Odin’s weapon, and the figure holding it is most likely Odin. The other sign of Odin’s presence is a warrior hanged on a tree to the left of the mound. All the symbols around the Valknut, which is in the central position here, point to the valknut as a symbol of a warrior's death and to Odin as a god of slain warriors who welcomes these Einherjar into Valhalla.

The unicursal type of valknut (which can be drawn with one stroke) appears twice on the Tängelgarda stone:

Once again we see the warrior motif, with a warrior on a horse (i.e. a ritter or knight) stepping over the valknuts (symbolizing, perhaps, triumph over death iteslf by embracing the noble Odinic path of fearlessness towards death) followed by armed servants or retainers (note the daggers or Seaxes on their belts) bearing arm-rings or oath-rings. This is similar to other processions in those Indo-European cultures untainted by herder mentality, in which tribute-bearing warriors carrying such valuable rings proudly and willingly followed a great Jarl or Warrior-King (instead of being dragged in chains as slaves, as in the art of Greco-Roman or Semitic societies).

Here we see Scythian warriors bearing tribute to Darius the Great of Persia at Takht-e-Jamshid ("Persepolis").  Once again, there is a horse and oath-rings, though here the horse is not ridden as it is a gift for King Darius. You can see them wearing similar long cloaks and the same sort of straight Seax-type dagger as in the Viking carving. The name Seax or Sax (Sakhu in eastern Aryan tongues) must be very old indeed, predating the divergence of eastern and western Indo-European peoples, as both the Saxons and the Scythians (Saka) took their name from this weapon. Very few other cultures in history allowed vassal nations the honor of bearing their arms in the presence of the King - and nearly all of them had an Indo-European heritage. Darius was himself a highly successful general with a dizzyingly long military career spanning over thirty nations and kingdoms.

The valknut itself, however, does not appear on artifacts outside of Northern Europe, though again, this may not mean the symbol was unknown to other Indo-European peoples and traditions further south and east. The trifos or triskelion was far more widespread among these cultures however.

Other instances of the valknut in Viking ornaments are Lärbro stone, River Nene ring and a bedpost found on the Oseberg ship. However, knot of the slain is not the only possible interpretation of the valknut. It is also called Hrungnir’s heart. This name is based on a description found in the Prose Edda:

Hrungnir had a heart that was famous. It was made of hard stone with three sharp-pointed corners just like the carved symbol Hrungnir’s Heart (hrungnishjarta).”

In fact "Hrungnir's heart" was the original name by which the valknut was known in ancient times. When a particularly valiant and fearless warrior fell in battle, it was customary for his tribe to cut the Hrungnir's heart into the skin of his chest with a knife, to mark him literally on the heart as one of the Einherjar, the fearless warriors of Odin, so that the Valkyries may more easily identify him and take his soul straight to Odin's hall in Valhalla (or, if Freyja chooses him instead, for she gets the first pick of the slain warriors, then he is taken to her hall Folkvangr – either way, to prepare for the final battle of Ragnarok.)

That's the literal, exoteric meaning, anyway. The original metaphysical meaning and function of the valknut's elements, the three interlocking triangles, is not wholly clear. The number three is a very common magick number in many cultures. However, in a Scandinavian context, three multiplied by three might designate the nine worlds (the Borromean valknut has nine corners), which are united by the Yggdrasil tree, which is said to have three main roots. Likewise, Odin, to whom the valknut is intimately linked, is said to have performed a ritual of self-sacrifice upon Yggdrasil for nine days and nights in order to win the Runes, of which he specifically mentions 18 in number (a multiple of nine). In modern times of course, the valknut, like Triquetra and Horn Triskelion, is often interpreted as a symbol pointing to Germanic Heathen (and more specifically, Odinist) convictions.

It also stands for extreme bravery and a willingness to die in a fight or sacrifice one's life to protect family and folk. The vast majority of Odinists and Ásatrúars discourage anyone who is not of their faith from getting a valknut tattoed on their skin – it's a serious statement of the Odinic path someone has chosen in life, and it can often be a lonely and harsh one. Not every runenmeister (let alone every Ásatrúar) ends up making this level of commitment to Odin's path. And those who do, are well aware that offering yourself as potential Einherjar material means accepting the risk that you may well die a very painful death.

The following is commentary of some Ásatrú watchers who decided to add their two cents to the issue:

When in reference to the Valknut, dedicating yourself to Odin doesn't always mean making him your “patron god” but it means that you have made the choice to be a warrior, never run away, fight to the death if necessary and enter Valhalla as Einherjar upon death. The Valkyries look for that symbol on the dead to decide if one should be taken to Valhalla, or left to see Hel.

This is a very serious symbol, not for cowards, the hall of Odin is not for cowards, if you're willing to "Do right and fear no one" then this symbol is for you, if not, then don't wear it, or someone might come by and take it from you, along with whatever it's attached to.

The Valknut is the symbol of the Einherjar, representing their dedication to the AllFather until the time of Ragnarok.The 'knot of the Slain' as it is also known. Only those in true and dedicated in service to Odin should don this sacred symbol as tattoo. Spiritual warriors of Valhalla, Einherjar, are chosen by Odin at birth, once AllFather has placed his mark upon you, your life belongs to him. From that moment your life will never be an easy one, each trial and tribulation throughout your years is your testing ground as designed by him to strengthen and enlighten you in the ways of the Northmen who are destined to stand with Odin at the final battle. Some are gifted with sight to recognise their condition and rise to this great privilege and challenge. Others will live out their lives whinging and whining about their miserable lives. The unworthy will always exclude themselves!

Those who wear the Valknut have pledged an oath to Odin himself [whether they realise it or not] to live their lives as a warrior, and woe to him that breaks that oath!!

'”That I advise you secondly, that you do not swear an oath unless it is truly kept; terrible fate-bonds attach the oath-breaker; wretched is the pledge-criminal.'” - Sigrdrifumal 23.

A hall she saw standing far from the sun, on Nastrond; its doors looked North; drops of poison fall in through the roof vents, the hall is woven of serpents spines. There she saw wading in turbid streams men who swore false oaths...."- Voluspa 38 and 39.

Finally; “For those whom have donned the sacred sign and then either disregarded it, or changed their mind...they shall surely lose their mind, or suffer a violent death and then be cast out by AllFather Odin, to dwell in Nastrond, in Hel's darkest quadrant.” (quote unknown)

As for buying valknut amulets, the opinions are divided. Some Ásatrú -oriented Runenmeisteren take the view that it's forbidden for anyone who's not serious about dedicating at least part of their lives to Odin. Others on the more esoteric path of runic spirituality take the view that an amulet by itself does not a commitment make. Whether you buy or wear one or not, in my mind it is the same - more or less harmless. It may signal that you are of a warrior path, at least for the time being (that said, at least understand what it means and that it's not something to take lightly), but even in worst-case scenario, it's not permanent and can still be removed from your neck if you ultimately change your mind. (However if you are not Ásatrú, Odinist, or even Heathen in a general sense, there's no reason to wear it - if you don't believe in the faith and its Gods, why wear its deeply meaningful symbols?)

However, whereas a valknut pendant can be taken off, tattoos are permanent and basically like signing in blood. You are marking your own flesh permanently with the holy Knot of the Fallen, of the warriors oathed to Allfather himself, and literally writing Odinism into your blood, beneath the skin! The valknut is not a universal obligation, even most Heathens do not go as far as tattooing it, and those who do are firmly convinced that Odin has called to them. It is a marker that you are willing to follow the often difficult and dangerous Odinic path. Make sure you know for certain, if you are or if you are not. And if not, then don't get it done.

1 Note that “fallen” refers to falling in battle, i.e. getting killed by an enemy – NOT fallen in the sense of being corrupted or “sinful” as in a Christian context.